Austronesian linguistic innovations (June 2021)

Pituish:

  1. *pitu ‘seven’ < *(RaCe)p-i-tu(Sa) (here)
  2. [non-displacing] *sa-ŋ-aCu ‘nine’ (here)

Limaish:

  1. *lima ‘five’ < *lima, *qa-lima ‘hand’ (here)
  2. Ca- reduplication in numerals for human reference (here)

Enemish:

  1. *enem ‘six’ (here)
  2. *CawiN ‘year’ (here)

Walu-Siwaish:

  1. *walu ‘eight’ (here)
  2. *Siwa ‘nine’ (here)

Western Walu-Siwaish:

  1. *[Z]apuR ‘fire’ < ‘cooking fire’ (here)
  2. *abi[Z]u ‘black’ (here)

Central Walu-Siwaish:

  1. *Ca-CiNi ‘one’ (human reference) (here)
  2. *ma-sa-N ‘ten’ (here)

Rukai-Tsouic:

  1. u-prefixation in numerals (non-human reference) (here)
  2. cáni ‘one’ (here)
  3. Ten lexical innovations of Tsuchida’s (here)

Tsouic:

  1. At least 57 lexical innovations of Tsuchida’s (here)
  2. *Ramucu ‘hand’ < ‘finger’ (here)
  3. Metathesis of *pataS ‘tattoo, write’ to *tapaSə (here)

Eastern Walu-Siwaish:

  1. Merger of *S1 and *S2 (here)
  2. *baCaq-an ‘ten’ (here)
  3. [non-displacing] *nanum ‘water’ (here)

Puluqish:

  1. *paka-, *maka- abilitative (here)
  2. *sa-puluq ‘one put aside’ > ‘ten’ (here)
  3. [analogical] *Siwa > *siwa ‘nine’ (here)

Northern Puluqish:

  1. *sasay ‘one’ (non-human reference) (here)
  2. *sa-puluq > puluq ‘ten’ (serial counting) (here)
  3. *mukeCep ‘ten’ (human and non-human reference) (here)
  4. *ukak ‘bone’ (here)
  5. *kuCem ‘cloud’ (here)
  6. *Nemak ‘activity, skill’ (here)
  7. *kabuŋ ‘hat’ (here)

Southern Austronesian (PMP + Kra-Dai):

  1. Puluqish linker *atu ‘and’ reduced to *at after *sa-puluq in numbers 10-19 (here)
  2. *baqbaq ‘mouth’ (here)
  3. *biRáq ‘kind of taro’ (here)
  4. *-ŋel ‘deaf’ (here)
  5. *píntu ‘door’ (here)
  6. *qi(d)zúR ‘sputum, saliva’ (here)
  7. *qa-sáuŋ ‘canine tooth’ (here)
  8. *sapeléd, *ma-sapeléd ‘astringent’ (here)
  9. *buŋáH1 ‘flower’ (here)
  10. *bujak ‘flower’ (here)